a. Mechatronics: Mechatronics has ever increasing applications in several fields. Using electronically controlled engines instead of traditional controllers (carburetor) in automobile industries leads to better engine performance and reduction of fuel consumption and air pollution. Anti-lock brake Systems, automatic air conditioning system, electro-hydraulic steering wheel, and electrical-hybrid cars are other applications of mechatronics in automobile industry.
b. Signal Processing: Quantities such as acceleration, temperature, humidity, etc vary during the time. Thus through sampling of the quantities in different time periods we can create a signal. Signal processing is a branch of science that deals with analyzing the signals.
c. Telecommunication and Computer Networks: What is concluded from old telecommunications networks, including linear or radio, analog or digital networks is lack of comprehensively in offering desirable service as well as required capacity, and high costs with regard to their geographical and population distributions. Thus, such networks are currently considered inefficient. On the other hand, because of the old criteria and technical basis of these networks and not being matched with rapid advances in technology and telecommunication (specially information processing), considerable increase of capacity, large volume of exchanged data in the shortest possible time, and minimizing the costs of the projects made the exerts think about a replacement and changing the telecommunication networks in such a way that the best networks be used according to capacity, transmission quality, extend distance, environment and area of operation, speed and value of design, construction, installation, and maintenance.
The most common telecommunication networks are linear and radio networks.